Flag of the European Union EU Clinical Trials Register Help

Clinical trials

The European Union Clinical Trials Register   allows you to search for protocol and results information on:
  • interventional clinical trials that were approved in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) under the Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC
  • clinical trials conducted outside the EU/EEA that are linked to European paediatric-medicine development

  • EU/EEA interventional clinical trials approved under or transitioned to the Clinical Trial Regulation 536/2014 are publicly accessible through the
    Clinical Trials Information System (CTIS).

    The EU Clinical Trials Register currently displays   43935   clinical trials with a EudraCT protocol, of which   7309   are clinical trials conducted with subjects less than 18 years old.   The register also displays information on   18700   older paediatric trials (in scope of Article 45 of the Paediatric Regulation (EC) No 1901/2006).

    Phase 1 trials conducted solely on adults and that are not part of an agreed paediatric investigation plan (PIP) are not publicly available (see Frequently Asked Questions ).  
    Examples: Cancer AND drug name. Pneumonia AND sponsor name.
    How to search [pdf]
    Search Tips: Under advanced search you can use filters for Country, Age Group, Gender, Trial Phase, Trial Status, Date Range, Rare Diseases and Orphan Designation. For these items you should use the filters and not add them to your search terms in the text field.
    Advanced Search: Search tools

    < Back to search results

    Print Download

    EudraCT Number:2014-001355-23
    Sponsor's Protocol Code Number:40960
    National Competent Authority:Netherlands - Competent Authority
    Clinical Trial Type:EEA CTA
    Trial Status:Ongoing
    Date on which this record was first entered in the EudraCT database:2014-05-14
    Trial results
    Expand All   Collapse All
    A. Protocol Information
    A.1Member State ConcernedNetherlands - Competent Authority
    A.2EudraCT number2014-001355-23
    A.3Full title of the trial
    Ephedrine as add-on therapy for patients with myasthenia gravis
    Efedrine als toegevoegde behandeling voor patiënten met myasthenia
    A.3.1Title of the trial for lay people, in easily understood, i.e. non-technical, language
    Ephedrine as add-on therapy for patients with myasthenia gravis
    Efedrine als toegevoegde behandeling voor patiënten met myasthenia
    A.3.2Name or abbreviated title of the trial where available
    Ephedrine for MG
    Efedrine voor MG
    A.4.1Sponsor's protocol code number40960
    A.7Trial is part of a Paediatric Investigation Plan No
    A.8EMA Decision number of Paediatric Investigation Plan
    B. Sponsor Information
    B.Sponsor: 1
    B.1.1Name of SponsorLeiden University Medical Center
    B.3.1 and B.3.2Status of the sponsorNon-Commercial
    B.4 Source(s) of Monetary or Material Support for the clinical trial:
    B.4.1Name of organisation providing supportZonMw
    B.5 Contact point designated by the sponsor for further information on the trial
    B.5.1Name of organisationLeiden University Medical Center
    B.5.2Functional name of contact pointEphedrine study contact
    B.5.3 Address:
    B.5.3.1Street AddressAlbinusdreef 2
    B.5.3.2Town/ cityLeiden
    B.5.3.3Post code2333ZA
    B.5.4Telephone number0031715262118
    B.5.5Fax number0031715266671
    D. IMP Identification
    D.IMP: 1
    D.1.2 and D.1.3IMP RoleTest
    D.2 Status of the IMP to be used in the clinical trial
    D.2.1IMP to be used in the trial has a marketing authorisation Yes
    D. name Hidrocloruro de efedrina (In English: Ephedrine HCl)
    D. of the Marketing Authorisation holderLaboratorias ERN, S.A. Spain
    D.2.1.2Country which granted the Marketing AuthorisationSpain
    D.2.5The IMP has been designated in this indication as an orphan drug in the Community No
    D.2.5.1Orphan drug designation number
    D.3 Description of the IMP
    D.3.4Pharmaceutical form Tablet
    D.3.4.1Specific paediatric formulation No
    D.3.7Routes of administration for this IMPOral use
    D.3.8 to D.3.10 IMP Identification Details (Active Substances)
    D.3.9.1CAS number 50-98-6
    D.3.9.3Other descriptive nameEPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDE
    D.3.9.4EV Substance CodeSUB13686MIG
    D.3.10 Strength
    D.3.10.1Concentration unit mg milligram(s)
    D.3.10.2Concentration typeequal
    D.3.10.3Concentration number50
    D.3.11 The IMP contains an:
    D.3.11.1Active substance of chemical origin Yes
    D.3.11.2Active substance of biological/ biotechnological origin (other than Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    The IMP is a:
    D.3.11.3Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    D. cell therapy medicinal product No
    D. therapy medical product No
    D. Engineered Product No
    D. ATIMP (i.e. one involving a medical device) No
    D. on Advanced therapies (CAT) has issued a classification for this product No
    D.3.11.4Combination product that includes a device, but does not involve an Advanced Therapy No
    D.3.11.5Radiopharmaceutical medicinal product No
    D.3.11.6Immunological medicinal product (such as vaccine, allergen, immune serum) No
    D.3.11.7Plasma derived medicinal product No
    D.3.11.8Extractive medicinal product No
    D.3.11.9Recombinant medicinal product No
    D.3.11.10Medicinal product containing genetically modified organisms No
    D.3.11.11Herbal medicinal product No
    D.3.11.12Homeopathic medicinal product No
    D.3.11.13Another type of medicinal product No
    D.8 Information on Placebo
    D.8 Placebo: 1
    D.8.1Is a Placebo used in this Trial?Yes
    D.8.3Pharmaceutical form of the placeboTablet
    D.8.4Route of administration of the placeboOral use
    E. General Information on the Trial
    E.1 Medical condition or disease under investigation
    E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated
    myasthenia gravis
    myasthenia gravis
    E.1.1.1Medical condition in easily understood language
    E.1.1.2Therapeutic area Diseases [C] - Nervous System Diseases [C10]
    MedDRA Classification
    E.1.2 Medical condition or disease under investigation
    E.1.2Version 17.0
    E.1.2Level PT
    E.1.2Classification code 10028417
    E.1.2Term Myasthenia gravis
    E.1.2System Organ Class 10029205 - Nervous system disorders
    E.1.3Condition being studied is a rare disease Yes
    E.2 Objective of the trial
    E.2.1Main objective of the trial
    To determine the effect of ephedrine on muscle strength/endurance as measured by the QMG for all patients with AChR MG enrolled in this study when ephedrine is added to regular treatment with pyridostigmine and / or a stable low-dose prednisone and / or a stable dose of immunosuppressive treatment.
    Bepalen van het effect van efedrine op spierkracht/uithoudingsvermogen, gemeten m.b.v. de QMG test, in alle patiënten met AChR MG geïncludeerd in deze studie, bij toevoegen van efedrine aan de bestaande behandeling met pyridostigmine en/of een stabiele lage dosis prednison en/of stabiele dosis andere immunosuppressiva.
    E.2.2Secondary objectives of the trial
    a) To determine the effect of add-on therapy with ephedrine to regular treatment with pyridostigmine and / or low-dose prednisone for individual patients enrolled in this study.
    b) To determine the feasibility of a larger series of n-of-one trials to investigate the effect of add-on therapy in patients with myasthenia gravis. The feasibility of a larger series of n-of-one trials under the current protocol will be based on the number of completed cycles in this series of n-of-one trials.
    c) To determine the number of people who are initially eligible for the study, the number of people who enrol in and complete the multiple crossover phase and the number of people who subsequently proceed to the open label extension phase.
    d) To explore patients’, physicians’ and pharmacists’ perspectives on the use of series of n-of-one trials;
    e) To record any adverse events of ephedrine when added to the existing treatment of the MG patient.
    a) Bepalen van het effect van toegevoegde behandeling met efedrine aan reguliere behandeling met pyridostigmine en/of lage dosis prednison voor individuele geïncludeerde patiënten in deze studie
    b) Bepalen van de uitvoerbaarheid van een grotere serie n=1-trials om het effect van toegevoegde behandelingen bij myasthenia gravis te onderzoeken. De uitvoerbaarheid zal worden gebaseerd op basis van het aantal afgeronde cycli in deze serie van n=1-trials.
    c) Bepalen van het aantal patiënten dat geschikt is voor de huidige studie, het aantal geïncludeerde patiënten in de cross-over en open label extensie fase.
    d) Verkennen van het perspectief van patiënten, artsen en apothekers op het gebruik van (seriële) n=1-trials
    e) Vastleggen van complicaties ("adverse events") bij toegevoegde behandeling met efedrine.
    E.2.3Trial contains a sub-study No
    E.3Principal inclusion criteria
    1. Adult patient with a diagnosis of generalised MG based on
    a) Clinical signs or symptoms suggestive of generalised myasthenia gravis (for example, slowly progressive fluctuating muscle weakness in specific muscle groups); and
    b) A positive serologic test for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies

    2. Treatment with pyridostigmine, and / or low dose (max. 15 mg/day) prednisone and / or other immunosuppressive drugs does not (or no longer) adequately improve myasthenic symptoms.
    The dosage of pyridostigmine, prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs need to have been stable for at least 6 weeks prior to the trial.
    1. Volwassen patiënt met de diagnose gegeneraliseerde myasthenia gravis, gebaseerd op:
    a) klinische verschijnselen suggestief voor gegeneraliseerde myasthenie (bijvoorbeeld langzaam progressieve, fluctuerende spierzwakte in specifieke spiergroepen); en
    b) Aanwezigheid van antistoffen tegen de acetylcholinereceptor (AChR)

    2. Behandeling met pyridostigmine en/of lage dosis (max. 15mg/dag) prednison en/of andere immunsuppresiva biedt onvoldoende verlichting van symptomen passend bij myasthenia gravis.
    De dosering van pyridostigmine, prednison en andere immunosuppresiva moeten minimaal 6 weken stabiel zijn vooraf aan inclusie.
    E.4Principal exclusion criteria
    1. Purely ocular myasthenia (i.e. myasthenic symptoms that are limited to the extraocular muscles, such as ptosis and diplopia)
    2. Treatment with ephedrine is contraindicated or was not tolerated in the past.
    Contraindications include myocardial ischemia (angina pectoris and / or myocardial infarction), any cardiac arrhythmia, angle-closure glaucoma, current treatment by a psychologist or psychiatrist, current hypertension (defined as 2 measurements ≥ 140 / 90 mm Hg), poorly regulated diabetes mellitus, inherited QT syndrome or a prolonged QT interval (as indicated by ECG), prostatic hypertrophy and thyrotoxicosis. Patients with relevant drug interactions (MAO inhibitors, alpha and beta blockers) are also excluded.
    3. Reliance upon medium-high dose prednisone (> 15 mg/day) and recent (< 3 months) or regular intravenous immunoglobulin (ivIG) or plasma exchange therapy. This excludes steroid-sparing therapy such as azathioprine and excludes supportive therapy such as any form of physical therapy.
    These treatments are not exclusion criteria for the open label extension phase.
    4. Myasthenic crisis in the past 3 months
    5. Thymectomy in the past 6 months, or thymectomy (expected) to take place during the trial
    6. The patient is unable to fill out the study questionnaires or be interviewed in Dutch, or is unable to undergo the tests needed for the study, or is unable to give informed consent for participation in the study.
    7. The investigator can exclude patients for this trial which are deemed not suitable for any reason.
    1. Pure oculaire myasthenia gravis (d.w.z. symptomen beperkt tot de extra-oculaire spieren, zoals ptosis en diplopie)
    2. Behandeling met efedrine is gecontra-indiceerd of werd eerder niet verdragen.
    Contra-indicaties zijn: myocardischemie (angina pectoris en/of myocardinfarct), cardiale aritmie, nauwe-kamerhoekhoek glaucoom, huidige behandeling bij psycholoog of psychiater, huidige hypertensie (gedefinieerd als 2 metingen ≥ 140 / 90 mm Hg), slecht ingestelde diabetes mellitus, aangeboren QT syndroom / verlengd QT interval (op ECG, verricht vooraf aan inclusie), prostaathypertrofie, thyrotoxicose. Patiënten met relevante interacties met andere medicatie (MAO remmers, alfa en beta blokkers) worden ook ge-excludeerd.
    3. Afhankelijkheid van matig-hoge dosering prednison (> 15 mg/dag) en recente (< 3 maanden) of periodieke behandeling met intraveneuze immunoglobuline (ivIG) of plasmaferese. Hier valt dus niet onder: andere steroid-sparende immunosuppressiva zoals azathioprine, begeleidende behandeling zoals fysiotherapie.
    NB: dit zijn geen exclusie criteria voor de open label extensiefase
    4. Myasthene crise in de laatste 3 maanden
    5. Thymectomie in de laatste 6 maanden of tijdens het onderzoek
    6. De patiënt is niet in staat om de vragenlijsten in te vullen, een interview of benodigde onderzoeken te ondergaan in het Nederlands; of is niet in staat (geïnformeerde) toestemming te geven voor deelname aan het onderzoek
    7. De onderzoeker kan patiënten excluderen voor dit onderzoek indien ze - om welke reden dan ook - ongeschikt worden geacht
    E.5 End points
    E.5.1Primary end point(s)
    The efficacy of add-on ephedrine for all patients enrolled. This will be done based on an individual’s results on the multiple Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG, Tindall 1993) measurements taken during the double-blind, multiple crossover phase of the trial.
    De werkzaamheid van toegevoegde behandeling met efedrine voor alle geïncludeerde patiënten, gebaseerd op individuele resultaten op de QMG (“Quantified Myasthenia Gravis", Tindall 1993) test, gedurende de dubbelblinde, multipele cross-over fase van de studie.
    E.5.1.1Timepoint(s) of evaluation of this end point
    Six weeks after inclusion (per patient, analysis after inclusion of all patients)
    Zes weken na inclusie (per patiënt, analyse na inclusie van alle patiënten)
    E.5.2Secondary end point(s)
    a) The effect of add-on ephedrine as measured by QMG for individual patients enrolled in this study.
    b) The feasibility of a larger series of n-of-one trials. We will conclude that a larger series of n-of-one trials is feasible under the current protocol if, on average, every patient in this pilot study completes two cycles of the multiple crossover phase.
    c) Changes in secondary outcome parameters: MG Composite, MG ADL questionnaire. Subjective outcome measures include treatment preference and VAS score of muscle strength in a muscle group chosen by the patient.
    d) After the cross-over part of the trial, patients who decide to continue ephedrine add-on treatment will be asked to participate in the open label extension study. We will study the long-term effect of ephedrine and compare outcome parameters with baseline and short-term effect.
    e) The experiences of patients with n-of-one trials by means of semistructured interviews (by telephone) and to evaluate participating professionals’ (physicians’, pharmacists’ and statisticians’) experiences.
    f) Adverse events of ephedrine treatment as measured by ECG, laboratory tests (haematology, liver and renal function tests) and a questionnaire specifically developed for this purpose.
    a) Het effect van efedrine voor individuele patiënten in deze studie, gebaseerd op de QMG test.
    b) Uitvoerbaarheid van een grotere serie n=1-trials. Dit zal als uitvoerbaar worden beschouwd indien per patiënt gemiddeld twee of meer cycli van de multipele cross-over fase worden afgerond.
    c) Veranderingen in de secundaire uitkomstmaten: MG Composite en MG-ADL (vragenlijst). Subjectieve uitkomstmaten betreffen voorkeur voor een behandeltak en een VAS score voor spierkracht in een door de patiënt gekozen spiergroep.
    d) Patiënten die de cross-over fase van de studie hebben afgerond en besluiten door te gaan met efedrine, worden gevraagd deel te nemen aan de open label extensie fase. Het lange-termijn effect van efedrine zal worden bepaald en vergeleken met zowel baseline als het korte-termijn effect.
    e) Ervaringen van patiënten met n=1-trials middels een telefonisch semigestructureerd interview. Evaluatie van ervaringen van deelnemende professionals (artsen, apothekers en statistici).
    f) Complicaties van behandeling met efedrine zoals gemeten middels ECG, bloedonderzoek (hematologie, nier- en leverfunctie) en een vragenlijst ontwikkeld voor dit doel.
    E.5.2.1Timepoint(s) of evaluation of this end point
    a) After completion of the multiple cross-over phase (6 weeks after inclusion)
    b) After completion of the trial
    c) After completion of the multiple cross-over phase (6 weeks after inclusion)
    d) After completion of the open label extension phase (duration 6 months, this will be 8 months after initial inclusion in the trial)
    e) After completion of the trial
    f) During the entire trial (initially double-blind)
    a) Na afronden van de multipele cross-over fase (6 weken na inclusie)
    b) Na afronden van de studie
    c) Na afronden van de multipele cross-over fase (6 weken na inclusie)
    d) Na afronden van de open label extensie fase (duur: 6 maanden, afronding 8 maanden na initiële inclusie)
    e) Na afronden van de studie
    f) Gedurende de gehele studie (initieel dubbel-blind)
    E.6 and E.7 Scope of the trial
    E.6Scope of the trial
    E.6.1Diagnosis No
    E.6.2Prophylaxis No
    E.6.3Therapy Yes
    E.6.4Safety Yes
    E.6.5Efficacy Yes
    E.6.6Pharmacokinetic No
    E.6.7Pharmacodynamic No
    E.6.8Bioequivalence No
    E.6.9Dose response No
    E.6.10Pharmacogenetic No
    E.6.11Pharmacogenomic No
    E.6.12Pharmacoeconomic No
    E.6.13Others Yes
    E.6.13.1Other scope of the trial description
    Feasibility of future series of n-of-one trials and experiences of patients and professionals with the study design
    Uitvoerbaarheid van toekomstige seriële n=1-trials en ervaringen van patiënten en professionals met de studie opzet.
    E.7Trial type and phase
    E.7.1Human pharmacology (Phase I) No
    E.7.1.1First administration to humans No
    E.7.1.2Bioequivalence study No
    E.7.1.3Other No
    E. trial type description
    E.7.2Therapeutic exploratory (Phase II) Yes
    E.7.3Therapeutic confirmatory (Phase III) No
    E.7.4Therapeutic use (Phase IV) No
    E.8 Design of the trial
    E.8.1Controlled Yes
    E.8.1.1Randomised Yes
    E.8.1.2Open No
    E.8.1.3Single blind No
    E.8.1.4Double blind Yes
    E.8.1.5Parallel group No
    E.8.1.6Cross over Yes
    E.8.1.7Other Yes
    E. trial design description
    Optioneel open label extensie fase voor patiënten die besluiten door te gaan met efedrine
    Optional open label extension phase for patients who decide to continue ephedrine
    E.8.2 Comparator of controlled trial
    E.8.2.1Other medicinal product(s) No
    E.8.2.2Placebo Yes
    E.8.2.3Other No
    E.8.2.4Number of treatment arms in the trial2
    E.8.3 The trial involves single site in the Member State concerned Yes
    E.8.4 The trial involves multiple sites in the Member State concerned No
    E.8.5The trial involves multiple Member States No
    E.8.6 Trial involving sites outside the EEA
    E.8.6.1Trial being conducted both within and outside the EEA No
    E.8.6.2Trial being conducted completely outside of the EEA No
    E.8.7Trial has a data monitoring committee No
    E.8.8 Definition of the end of the trial and justification where it is not the last visit of the last subject undergoing the trial
    E.8.9 Initial estimate of the duration of the trial
    E.8.9.1In the Member State concerned years1
    E.8.9.1In the Member State concerned months
    E.8.9.1In the Member State concerned days
    F. Population of Trial Subjects
    F.1 Age Range
    F.1.1Trial has subjects under 18 No
    F.1.1.1In Utero No
    F.1.1.2Preterm newborn infants (up to gestational age < 37 weeks) No
    F.1.1.3Newborns (0-27 days) No
    F.1.1.4Infants and toddlers (28 days-23 months) No
    F.1.1.5Children (2-11years) No
    F.1.1.6Adolescents (12-17 years) No
    F.1.2Adults (18-64 years) Yes
    F.1.2.1Number of subjects for this age range: 3
    F.1.3Elderly (>=65 years) Yes
    F.1.3.1Number of subjects for this age range: 1
    F.2 Gender
    F.2.1Female Yes
    F.2.2Male Yes
    F.3 Group of trial subjects
    F.3.1Healthy volunteers No
    F.3.2Patients Yes
    F.3.3Specific vulnerable populations No
    F.3.3.1Women of childbearing potential not using contraception No
    F.3.3.2Women of child-bearing potential using contraception No
    F.3.3.3Pregnant women No
    F.3.3.4Nursing women No
    F.3.3.5Emergency situation No
    F.3.3.6Subjects incapable of giving consent personally No
    F.3.3.7Others No
    F.4 Planned number of subjects to be included
    F.4.1In the member state4
    F.5 Plans for treatment or care after the subject has ended the participation in the trial (if it is different from the expected normal treatment of that condition)
    Patients can elect to continue ephedrine for 6 months after the cross-over phase as a part of the open label extension phase. After completion of the trial, their treating neurologist can request reimbursement of continued ephedrine treatment with the patient's health insurance provider. The results of these trial will be discussed with the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (Dutch: CBG) and the National Health Care Institute (Dutch: ZIN), which are involved in reimbursement decisions.
    Patiënten kunnen besluiten 6 maanden met efedrine door te gaan na de cross-over fase als onderdeel van de open label extensiefase. Na afronding van de studie kunnen behandelend neurologen vergoeding aanvragen voor efedrine bij de zorgverzekeraar van de patiënt. De resultaten van de studie zullen worden besproken met het College ter Beoordeling van Geneesmiddelen (CBG) en het Zorginstituut Nederland (ZIN). Deze instanties zijn betrokken bij besluitvorming over vergoeding van medicatie.
    G. Investigator Networks to be involved in the Trial
    G.4 Investigator Network to be involved in the Trial: 1
    G.4.1Name of Organisation Spierziekten Nederland
    G.4.3.4Network Country Netherlands
    N. Review by the Competent Authority or Ethics Committee in the country concerned
    N.Competent Authority Decision Authorised
    N.Date of Competent Authority Decision2014-05-14
    N.Ethics Committee Opinion of the trial applicationFavourable
    N.Ethics Committee Opinion: Reason(s) for unfavourable opinion
    N.Date of Ethics Committee Opinion2014-08-29
    P. End of Trial
    P.End of Trial StatusOngoing
    For support, Contact us.
    The status and protocol content of GB trials is no longer updated since 1 January 2021. For the UK, as of 31 January 2021, EU Law applies only to the territory of Northern Ireland (NI) to the extent foreseen in the Protocol on Ireland/NI. Legal notice
    As of 31 January 2023, all EU/EEA initial clinical trial applications must be submitted through CTIS . Updated EudraCT trials information and information on PIP/Art 46 trials conducted exclusively in third countries continues to be submitted through EudraCT and published on this website.

    European Medicines Agency © 1995-2024 | Domenico Scarlattilaan 6, 1083 HS Amsterdam, The Netherlands