Flag of the European Union EU Clinical Trials Register Help

Clinical trials

The European Union Clinical Trials Register allows you to search for protocol and results information on:
  • interventional clinical trials that are conducted in the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA);
  • clinical trials conducted outside the EU / EEA that are linked to European paediatric-medicine development.
  • Learn   more about the EU Clinical Trials Register   including the source of the information and the legal basis.


    The EU Clinical Trials Register currently displays   38003   clinical trials with a EudraCT protocol, of which   6235   are clinical trials conducted with subjects less than 18 years old.
    The register also displays information on   18700   older paediatric trials (in scope of Article 45 of the Paediatric Regulation (EC) No 1901/2006).
     
    Examples: Cancer AND drug name. Pneumonia AND sponsor name.
    How to search [pdf]
    Search Tips: Under advanced search you can use filters for Country, Age Group, Gender, Trial Phase, Trial Status, Date Range, Rare Diseases and Orphan Designation. For these items you should use the filters and not add them to your search terms in the text field.
    Advanced Search: Search tools
     

    < Back to search results

    Print Download

    Summary
    EudraCT Number:2016-004121-16
    Sponsor's Protocol Code Number:AC16141
    National Competent Authority:UK - MHRA
    Clinical Trial Type:EEA CTA
    Trial Status:Ongoing
    Date on which this record was first entered in the EudraCT database:2017-06-15
    Trial results
    Index
    A. PROTOCOL INFORMATION
    B. SPONSOR INFORMATION
    C. APPLICANT IDENTIFICATION
    D. IMP IDENTIFICATION
    D.8 INFORMATION ON PLACEBO
    E. GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE TRIAL
    F. POPULATION OF TRIAL SUBJECTS
    G. INVESTIGATOR NETWORKS TO BE INVOLVED IN THE TRIAL
    N. REVIEW BY THE COMPETENT AUTHORITY OR ETHICS COMMITTEE IN THE COUNTRY CONCERNED
    P. END OF TRIAL
    Expand All   Collapse All
    A. Protocol Information
    A.1Member State ConcernedUK - MHRA
    A.2EudraCT number2016-004121-16
    A.3Full title of the trial
    Start or STop Anticoagulants Randomised Trial (SoSTART) after spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage
    A.3.1Title of the trial for lay people, in easily understood, i.e. non-technical, language
    SoSTART
    A.3.2Name or abbreviated title of the trial where available
    Start or STop Anticoagulants Randomised Trial (SoSTART)
    A.4.1Sponsor's protocol code numberAC16141
    A.5.2US NCT (ClinicalTrials.gov registry) numberNCT03153150
    A.5.4Other Identifiers
    Name:ClinicalTrials.gov IdentifierNumber:NCT03153150
    A.7Trial is part of a Paediatric Investigation Plan No
    A.8EMA Decision number of Paediatric Investigation Plan
    B. Sponsor Information
    B.Sponsor: 1
    B.1.1Name of SponsorUniversity of Edinburgh
    B.1.3.4CountryUnited Kingdom
    B.3.1 and B.3.2Status of the sponsorNon-Commercial
    B.4 Source(s) of Monetary or Material Support for the clinical trial:
    B.4.1Name of organisation providing supportChest Heart & Stroke Scotland
    B.4.2CountryUnited Kingdom
    B.4.1Name of organisation providing supportMedical Research Council
    B.4.2CountryUnited Kingdom
    B.5 Contact point designated by the sponsor for further information on the trial
    B.5.1Name of organisationNHS Lothian
    B.5.2Functional name of contact pointHeather Charles
    B.5.3 Address:
    B.5.3.1Street AddressThe Queen’s Medical Research Institute 47 Little France Crescent
    B.5.3.2Town/ cityEdinburgh
    B.5.3.3Post codeEH16 4TJ
    B.5.3.4CountryUnited Kingdom
    B.5.4Telephone number0131 242 3359
    B.5.6E-mailaccord@nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk
    D. IMP Identification
    D.IMP: 1
    D.1.2 and D.1.3IMP RoleTest
    D.2 Status of the IMP to be used in the clinical trial
    D.2.1IMP to be used in the trial has a marketing authorisation Yes
    D.2.1.1.1Trade name Eliquis
    D.2.1.1.2Name of the Marketing Authorisation holderBristol-Myers Squibb/Pfizer EEIG
    D.2.1.2Country which granted the Marketing AuthorisationUnited Kingdom
    D.2.5The IMP has been designated in this indication as an orphan drug in the Community No
    D.2.5.1Orphan drug designation number
    D.3 Description of the IMP
    D.3.1Product nameEliquis
    D.3.4Pharmaceutical form Film-coated tablet
    D.3.4.1Specific paediatric formulation No
    D.3.7Routes of administration for this IMPOral use
    D.3.8 to D.3.10 IMP Identification Details (Active Substances)
    D.3.9.1CAS number 503612-47-3
    D.3.9.3Other descriptive nameApixaban
    D.3.9.4EV Substance CodeAS2
    D.3.10 Strength
    D.3.10.1Concentration unit mg milligram(s)
    D.3.10.2Concentration typerange
    D.3.10.3Concentration number2.5 to 5.0
    D.3.11 The IMP contains an:
    D.3.11.1Active substance of chemical origin Yes
    D.3.11.2Active substance of biological/ biotechnological origin (other than Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    The IMP is a:
    D.3.11.3Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    D.3.11.3.1Somatic cell therapy medicinal product No
    D.3.11.3.2Gene therapy medical product No
    D.3.11.3.3Tissue Engineered Product No
    D.3.11.3.4Combination ATIMP (i.e. one involving a medical device) No
    D.3.11.3.5Committee on Advanced therapies (CAT) has issued a classification for this product No
    D.3.11.4Combination product that includes a device, but does not involve an Advanced Therapy No
    D.3.11.5Radiopharmaceutical medicinal product No
    D.3.11.6Immunological medicinal product (such as vaccine, allergen, immune serum) No
    D.3.11.7Plasma derived medicinal product No
    D.3.11.8Extractive medicinal product No
    D.3.11.9Recombinant medicinal product No
    D.3.11.10Medicinal product containing genetically modified organisms No
    D.3.11.11Herbal medicinal product No
    D.3.11.12Homeopathic medicinal product No
    D.3.11.13Another type of medicinal product No
    D.IMP: 2
    D.1.2 and D.1.3IMP RoleTest
    D.2 Status of the IMP to be used in the clinical trial
    D.2.1IMP to be used in the trial has a marketing authorisation Yes
    D.2.1.1.1Trade name Xarelto
    D.2.1.1.2Name of the Marketing Authorisation holderBayer Pharma AG
    D.2.1.2Country which granted the Marketing AuthorisationGermany
    D.2.5The IMP has been designated in this indication as an orphan drug in the Community No
    D.2.5.1Orphan drug designation number
    D.3 Description of the IMP
    D.3.1Product nameXarelto
    D.3.4Pharmaceutical form Film-coated tablet
    D.3.4.1Specific paediatric formulation No
    D.3.7Routes of administration for this IMPOral use
    D.3.8 to D.3.10 IMP Identification Details (Active Substances)
    D.3.9.1CAS number 366789-02-8
    D.3.9.3Other descriptive nameRivaroxaban
    D.3.9.4EV Substance CodeAS3
    D.3.10 Strength
    D.3.10.1Concentration unit mg milligram(s)
    D.3.10.2Concentration typeequal
    D.3.10.3Concentration number20
    D.3.11 The IMP contains an:
    D.3.11.1Active substance of chemical origin Yes
    D.3.11.2Active substance of biological/ biotechnological origin (other than Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    The IMP is a:
    D.3.11.3Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    D.3.11.3.1Somatic cell therapy medicinal product No
    D.3.11.3.2Gene therapy medical product No
    D.3.11.3.3Tissue Engineered Product No
    D.3.11.3.4Combination ATIMP (i.e. one involving a medical device) No
    D.3.11.3.5Committee on Advanced therapies (CAT) has issued a classification for this product No
    D.3.11.4Combination product that includes a device, but does not involve an Advanced Therapy No
    D.3.11.5Radiopharmaceutical medicinal product No
    D.3.11.6Immunological medicinal product (such as vaccine, allergen, immune serum) No
    D.3.11.7Plasma derived medicinal product No
    D.3.11.8Extractive medicinal product No
    D.3.11.9Recombinant medicinal product No
    D.3.11.10Medicinal product containing genetically modified organisms No
    D.3.11.11Herbal medicinal product No
    D.3.11.12Homeopathic medicinal product No
    D.3.11.13Another type of medicinal product No
    D.IMP: 3
    D.1.2 and D.1.3IMP RoleTest
    D.2 Status of the IMP to be used in the clinical trial
    D.2.1IMP to be used in the trial has a marketing authorisation Yes
    D.2.1.1.1Trade name Lixiana
    D.2.1.1.2Name of the Marketing Authorisation holderDaiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH
    D.2.1.2Country which granted the Marketing AuthorisationGermany
    D.2.5The IMP has been designated in this indication as an orphan drug in the Community No
    D.2.5.1Orphan drug designation number
    D.3 Description of the IMP
    D.3.1Product nameLixiana
    D.3.4Pharmaceutical form Film-coated tablet
    D.3.4.1Specific paediatric formulation No
    D.3.7Routes of administration for this IMPOral use
    D.3.8 to D.3.10 IMP Identification Details (Active Substances)
    D.3.9.1CAS number 480449-70-5
    D.3.9.3Other descriptive nameEdoxaban
    D.3.9.4EV Substance CodeAS4
    D.3.10 Strength
    D.3.10.1Concentration unit mg milligram(s)
    D.3.10.2Concentration typerange
    D.3.10.3Concentration number30 to 60
    D.3.11 The IMP contains an:
    D.3.11.1Active substance of chemical origin Yes
    D.3.11.2Active substance of biological/ biotechnological origin (other than Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    The IMP is a:
    D.3.11.3Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    D.3.11.3.1Somatic cell therapy medicinal product No
    D.3.11.3.2Gene therapy medical product No
    D.3.11.3.3Tissue Engineered Product No
    D.3.11.3.4Combination ATIMP (i.e. one involving a medical device) No
    D.3.11.3.5Committee on Advanced therapies (CAT) has issued a classification for this product No
    D.3.11.4Combination product that includes a device, but does not involve an Advanced Therapy No
    D.3.11.5Radiopharmaceutical medicinal product No
    D.3.11.6Immunological medicinal product (such as vaccine, allergen, immune serum) No
    D.3.11.7Plasma derived medicinal product No
    D.3.11.8Extractive medicinal product No
    D.3.11.9Recombinant medicinal product No
    D.3.11.10Medicinal product containing genetically modified organisms No
    D.3.11.11Herbal medicinal product No
    D.3.11.12Homeopathic medicinal product No
    D.3.11.13Another type of medicinal product No
    D.IMP: 4
    D.1.2 and D.1.3IMP RoleTest
    D.2 Status of the IMP to be used in the clinical trial
    D.2.1IMP to be used in the trial has a marketing authorisation Yes
    D.2.1.1.1Trade name Pradaxa
    D.2.1.1.2Name of the Marketing Authorisation holderBoehringer Ingelheim International GmbH
    D.2.1.2Country which granted the Marketing AuthorisationGermany
    D.2.5The IMP has been designated in this indication as an orphan drug in the Community No
    D.2.5.1Orphan drug designation number
    D.3 Description of the IMP
    D.3.1Product namePradaxa
    D.3.4Pharmaceutical form Capsule, hard
    D.3.4.1Specific paediatric formulation No
    D.3.7Routes of administration for this IMPOral use
    D.3.8 to D.3.10 IMP Identification Details (Active Substances)
    D.3.9.1CAS number 211915-06-9
    D.3.9.3Other descriptive nameDabigatran
    D.3.9.4EV Substance CodeAS5
    D.3.10 Strength
    D.3.10.1Concentration unit mg milligram(s)
    D.3.10.2Concentration typerange
    D.3.10.3Concentration number150 to 300
    D.3.11 The IMP contains an:
    D.3.11.1Active substance of chemical origin Yes
    D.3.11.2Active substance of biological/ biotechnological origin (other than Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    The IMP is a:
    D.3.11.3Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    D.3.11.3.1Somatic cell therapy medicinal product No
    D.3.11.3.2Gene therapy medical product No
    D.3.11.3.3Tissue Engineered Product No
    D.3.11.3.4Combination ATIMP (i.e. one involving a medical device) No
    D.3.11.3.5Committee on Advanced therapies (CAT) has issued a classification for this product No
    D.3.11.4Combination product that includes a device, but does not involve an Advanced Therapy No
    D.3.11.5Radiopharmaceutical medicinal product No
    D.3.11.6Immunological medicinal product (such as vaccine, allergen, immune serum) No
    D.3.11.7Plasma derived medicinal product No
    D.3.11.8Extractive medicinal product No
    D.3.11.9Recombinant medicinal product No
    D.3.11.10Medicinal product containing genetically modified organisms No
    D.3.11.11Herbal medicinal product No
    D.3.11.12Homeopathic medicinal product No
    D.3.11.13Another type of medicinal product No
    D.IMP: 5
    D.1.2 and D.1.3IMP RoleTest
    D.2 Status of the IMP to be used in the clinical trial
    D.2.1IMP to be used in the trial has a marketing authorisation Yes
    D.2.1.1.1Trade name Warfarin
    D.2.1.1.2Name of the Marketing Authorisation holderSun Pharmaceutical Industries Europe B.V.
    D.2.1.2Country which granted the Marketing AuthorisationNetherlands
    D.2.5The IMP has been designated in this indication as an orphan drug in the Community No
    D.2.5.1Orphan drug designation number
    D.3 Description of the IMP
    D.3.1Product nameWarfarin
    D.3.4Pharmaceutical form Tablet
    D.3.4.1Specific paediatric formulation No
    D.3.7Routes of administration for this IMPOral use
    D.3.8 to D.3.10 IMP Identification Details (Active Substances)
    D.3.9.1CAS number 81-81-2
    D.3.9.4EV Substance CodeAS6
    D.3.10 Strength
    D.3.10.1Concentration unit mg milligram(s)
    D.3.10.2Concentration typerange
    D.3.10.3Concentration number3 to 10
    D.3.11 The IMP contains an:
    D.3.11.1Active substance of chemical origin Yes
    D.3.11.2Active substance of biological/ biotechnological origin (other than Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    The IMP is a:
    D.3.11.3Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    D.3.11.3.1Somatic cell therapy medicinal product No
    D.3.11.3.2Gene therapy medical product No
    D.3.11.3.3Tissue Engineered Product No
    D.3.11.3.4Combination ATIMP (i.e. one involving a medical device) No
    D.3.11.3.5Committee on Advanced therapies (CAT) has issued a classification for this product No
    D.3.11.4Combination product that includes a device, but does not involve an Advanced Therapy No
    D.3.11.5Radiopharmaceutical medicinal product No
    D.3.11.6Immunological medicinal product (such as vaccine, allergen, immune serum) No
    D.3.11.7Plasma derived medicinal product No
    D.3.11.8Extractive medicinal product No
    D.3.11.9Recombinant medicinal product No
    D.3.11.10Medicinal product containing genetically modified organisms No
    D.3.11.11Herbal medicinal product No
    D.3.11.12Homeopathic medicinal product No
    D.3.11.13Another type of medicinal product No
    D.IMP: 6
    D.1.2 and D.1.3IMP RoleTest
    D.2 Status of the IMP to be used in the clinical trial
    D.2.1IMP to be used in the trial has a marketing authorisation Yes
    D.2.1.1.1Trade name Sinthrome
    D.2.1.1.2Name of the Marketing Authorisation holderMerus Labs Luxco II S.à.R.L.
    D.2.1.2Country which granted the Marketing AuthorisationLuxembourg
    D.2.5The IMP has been designated in this indication as an orphan drug in the Community No
    D.2.5.1Orphan drug designation number
    D.3 Description of the IMP
    D.3.1Product nameSinthrome
    D.3.4Pharmaceutical form Tablet
    D.3.4.1Specific paediatric formulation No
    D.3.7Routes of administration for this IMPOral use
    D.3.8 to D.3.10 IMP Identification Details (Active Substances)
    D.3.9.1CAS number 152-72-7
    D.3.9.3Other descriptive nameAcenocoumarol
    D.3.9.4EV Substance CodeAS7
    D.3.10 Strength
    D.3.10.1Concentration unit mg milligram(s)
    D.3.10.2Concentration typerange
    D.3.10.3Concentration number2 to 6
    D.3.11 The IMP contains an:
    D.3.11.1Active substance of chemical origin Yes
    D.3.11.2Active substance of biological/ biotechnological origin (other than Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    The IMP is a:
    D.3.11.3Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    D.3.11.3.1Somatic cell therapy medicinal product No
    D.3.11.3.2Gene therapy medical product No
    D.3.11.3.3Tissue Engineered Product No
    D.3.11.3.4Combination ATIMP (i.e. one involving a medical device) No
    D.3.11.3.5Committee on Advanced therapies (CAT) has issued a classification for this product No
    D.3.11.4Combination product that includes a device, but does not involve an Advanced Therapy No
    D.3.11.5Radiopharmaceutical medicinal product No
    D.3.11.6Immunological medicinal product (such as vaccine, allergen, immune serum) No
    D.3.11.7Plasma derived medicinal product No
    D.3.11.8Extractive medicinal product No
    D.3.11.9Recombinant medicinal product No
    D.3.11.10Medicinal product containing genetically modified organisms No
    D.3.11.11Herbal medicinal product No
    D.3.11.12Homeopathic medicinal product No
    D.3.11.13Another type of medicinal product No
    D.IMP: 7
    D.1.2 and D.1.3IMP RoleTest
    D.2 Status of the IMP to be used in the clinical trial
    D.2.1IMP to be used in the trial has a marketing authorisation Yes
    D.2.1.1.1Trade name Phenindione
    D.2.1.1.2Name of the Marketing Authorisation holderMercury Pharma Group Ltd
    D.2.1.2Country which granted the Marketing AuthorisationUnited Kingdom
    D.2.5The IMP has been designated in this indication as an orphan drug in the Community No
    D.2.5.1Orphan drug designation number
    D.3 Description of the IMP
    D.3.1Product namePhenindione
    D.3.4Pharmaceutical form Tablet
    D.3.4.1Specific paediatric formulation No
    D.3.7Routes of administration for this IMPOral use
    D.3.8 to D.3.10 IMP Identification Details (Active Substances)
    D.3.9.1CAS number 83-12-5
    D.3.9.3Other descriptive nameDindevan
    D.3.9.4EV Substance CodeAS8
    D.3.10 Strength
    D.3.10.1Concentration unit mg milligram(s)
    D.3.10.2Concentration typerange
    D.3.10.3Concentration number50 to 200
    D.3.11 The IMP contains an:
    D.3.11.1Active substance of chemical origin Yes
    D.3.11.2Active substance of biological/ biotechnological origin (other than Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    The IMP is a:
    D.3.11.3Advanced Therapy IMP (ATIMP) No
    D.3.11.3.1Somatic cell therapy medicinal product No
    D.3.11.3.2Gene therapy medical product No
    D.3.11.3.3Tissue Engineered Product No
    D.3.11.3.4Combination ATIMP (i.e. one involving a medical device) No
    D.3.11.3.5Committee on Advanced therapies (CAT) has issued a classification for this product No
    D.3.11.4Combination product that includes a device, but does not involve an Advanced Therapy No
    D.3.11.5Radiopharmaceutical medicinal product No
    D.3.11.6Immunological medicinal product (such as vaccine, allergen, immune serum) No
    D.3.11.7Plasma derived medicinal product No
    D.3.11.8Extractive medicinal product No
    D.3.11.9Recombinant medicinal product No
    D.3.11.10Medicinal product containing genetically modified organisms No
    D.3.11.11Herbal medicinal product No
    D.3.11.12Homeopathic medicinal product No
    D.3.11.13Another type of medicinal product No
    D.8 Information on Placebo
    D.8 Placebo: 1
    D.8.1Is a Placebo used in this Trial?Yes
    E. General Information on the Trial
    E.1 Medical condition or disease under investigation
    E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated
    Spontaneous Intracranial Haemorrhage (ICH)
    E.1.1.1Medical condition in easily understood language
    Brain Haemorrhage
    E.1.1.2Therapeutic area Diseases [C] - Cardiovascular Diseases [C14]
    MedDRA Classification
    E.1.2 Medical condition or disease under investigation
    E.1.2Version 20.0
    E.1.2Level LLT
    E.1.2Classification code 10022753
    E.1.2Term Intracerebral haemorrhage
    E.1.2System Organ Class 100000004852
    E.1.3Condition being studied is a rare disease No
    E.2 Objective of the trial
    E.2.1Main objective of the trial
    For adults surviving bleeding in the skull (known as brain haemorrhage) with an irregular heartbeat (known as atrial fibrillation), does a policy of starting oral anticoagulants result in a beneficial reduction of all serious vascular events (like heart attack and stroke) over at least one year compared with a policy of avoiding oral anticoagulants?
    E.2.2Secondary objectives of the trial
    The secondary objectives of the pilot phase of the trial are to determine:
    - The acceptability of the trial protocol to investigators and patients.
    - The proportions of eligible patients who are recruited, unsuitable, or decline to participate.
    - The rate of recruiting up to 60 participants to determine the feasibility of recruiting the target sample size in the main phase of the trial in an acceptable timescale.

    The secondary objective of the main phase is to determine:
    - whether patients with tiny deposits of blood in the brain called 'microbleeds' on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have an increased risk of having a recurrent stroke if prescribed anticoagulant drugs following a brain haemorrhage.
    E.2.3Trial contains a sub-study Yes
    E.2.3.1Full title, date and version of each sub-study and their related objectives
    We will perform a brain MRI sub-study in the pilot and main phases to test for modification of the effects of full dose oral anticoagulation by radiographic biomarkers of small vessel disease (principally, the presence of brain microbleeds). Brain microbleeds on MRI are radiographic biomarkers of cerebral small vessel diseases that are associated with Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulant use in the general population and at the time of ICH. Use of VKA anticoagulants, but perhaps not new direct oral anticoagulants, seems to be associated with an increase in the number of brain microbleeds on repeat MRI after one year. Brain microbleeds are risk factors for recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage after first intracerebral haemorrhage, but they are also risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Uncertainty remains about whether these biomarkers might modify the effects of full dose anticoagulants on recurrent intracranial haemorrhage or ischaemic stroke, particularly when cerebral amyloid angiopathy is the suspected small vessel disease underlying lobar intracerebral haemorrhage.

    If there is heterogeneity of the effects of full dose anticoagulants after intracranial haemorrhage by brain microbleed presence or number, this might affect decisions in clinical practice.

    Careful sub-group analysis of randomised controlled trials are the best way of investigating heterogeneity/modification of treatment effects.
    E.3Principal inclusion criteria
    1. Patient age ≥18 years
    2. Intracranial haemorrhage (i.e. intracerebral haemorrhage, non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, intraventricular haemorrhage, or subdural haemorrhage)
    - Not attributable to a known underlying intracranial aneurysm, arteriovenous
    malformation, cerebral cavernous malformation, dural arteriovenous fistula,
    intracranial venous thrombosis
    - Not attributable to known head injury, based on:
    - a history from the patient/witness of spontaneous symptom onset
    without preceding head trauma (head trauma occurring after symptom
    onset is permissible)
    - brain imaging appearances consistent with spontaneous intracranial
    haemorrhage (which may be accompanied by the brain/bone/soft tissue
    appearances of trauma occurring subsequently)
    3. Atrial fibrillation/flutter (persistent or paroxysmal) with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2
    4. If included in the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-study, the scan must be done after intracranial haemorrhage and before randomisation
    E.4Principal exclusion criteria
    1. Intracranial haemorrhage within the last 24 hours (when the risk of haemorrhage
    expansion/growth is greatest)
    2. Intracranial haemorrhage is exclusively due to trauma or haemorrhagic transformation of ischaemic stroke
    3. Prosthetic mechanical heart valve or severe (haemodynamically significant) native valve disease
    4. Intention to perform left atrial appendage occlusion for prevention of systemic embolism in AF
    5. Intention to start antiplatelet drug(s) if randomised to start full dose OAC
    6. Intention to start OAC if randomised to either start antiplatelet drugs or avoid all antithrombotic drugs
    7. Intention to implement the allocated treatment strategy for <1 year
    8. Patient or their doctor is certain about whether to start or avoid full dose OAC
    9. Brain imaging that first diagnosed the intracranial haemorrhage is not available
    10. Patient is not registered with a general practitioner
    11. Patient is pregnant, breastfeeding, or of childbearing age and not taking contraception
    12. Patient and carer unable to understand spoken or written English
    13. Contraindications to any of the IMPs, other than recent intracranial haemorrhage
    14. Contraindication to MRI (brain MRI sub-study)
    15. Life expectancy less than one year
    16. Previously randomised in SoSTART
    E.5 End points
    E.5.1Primary end point(s)
    The primary outcome for the pilot phase is rate of participant recruitment per site.

    The primary outcome for the main phase is a composite of all symptomatic serious vascular events:
    - Non-fatal acute coronary syndrome (i.e. not followed by death within 30 days of onset)
    - Non-fatal stroke (i.e. ischaemic, haemorrhagic or unknown sub-type, not followed by death within 30 days of onset)
    - Death from a vascular cause (i.e. haemorrhagic or ischaemic events followed by death within 30 days), sudden death, or death of an unknown cause.
    E.5.1.1Timepoint(s) of evaluation of this end point
    This outcome will be evaluated using survival analysis techniques for its occurrence over at least one year.
    E.5.2Secondary end point(s)
    Pilot phase

    The proportions of eligible patients who are recruited, unsuitable, or decline to participate. The acceptability of the trial protocol to investigators and patients.

    Main phase

    Individual symptomatic serious vascular events:
    • Major haemorrhagic events
    o Fatal bleeding, and/or
    o Symptomatic bleeding in a critical area or organ, such as intracranial, intraspinal, intraocular, retroperitoneal, intra-articular or pericardial, or intramuscular with compartment syndrome, and/or
    o Bleeding causing a fall in haemoglobin level of 20 g/l (1.24 mmol/l) or more, or leading to transfusion of two or more units of whole blood or red cells
    • Symptomatic ischaemic events
    o transient ischaemic attack
    o ischaemic stroke
    o acute coronary syndrome
    o peripheral arterial occlusion/insufficiency
    o mesenteric ischaemia
    o retinal arterial occlusion
    o deep vein thrombosis
    o pulmonary embolism
    o cardiac death with symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischaemia (type 3),133 or evidence of arrhythmia
    • Revascularisation procedures (carotid, coronary, or peripheral arterial)
    • Symptomatic stroke of uncertain sub-type
    o Non-fatal stroke, with brain imaging performed too late to distinguish haemorrhage from infarction
    o Rapidly fatal stroke, but without radiographic or pathological confirmation

    Individual types of fatal events:
    • Vascular deaths
    • Sudden deaths
    • Deaths of an unknown cause
    • Deaths from any other cause

    Annual ratings of participant dependence completed by participant, their carer or nominated contact, or healthcare provider (e.g. general practitioner):
    • Simplified modified Rankin Scale postal questionnaire
    • Structured interview to determine the modified Rankin Scale score with non-responders to the postal questionnaire
    E.5.2.1Timepoint(s) of evaluation of this end point
    These outcomes will be evaluated using survival analysis techniques for their occurrence over at least one year.

    Further analyses, such as the effect on the composite endpoint of all serious vascular events (which would be likely to be the primary outcome in the main phase of the trial), will be specified in our statistical analysis plan.
    E.6 and E.7 Scope of the trial
    E.6Scope of the trial
    E.6.1Diagnosis Yes
    E.6.2Prophylaxis Yes
    E.6.3Therapy Yes
    E.6.4Safety Yes
    E.6.5Efficacy Yes
    E.6.6Pharmacokinetic No
    E.6.7Pharmacodynamic No
    E.6.8Bioequivalence No
    E.6.9Dose response No
    E.6.10Pharmacogenetic No
    E.6.11Pharmacogenomic No
    E.6.12Pharmacoeconomic No
    E.6.13Others No
    E.7Trial type and phase
    E.7.1Human pharmacology (Phase I) No
    E.7.1.1First administration to humans No
    E.7.1.2Bioequivalence study No
    E.7.1.3Other No
    E.7.1.3.1Other trial type description
    E.7.2Therapeutic exploratory (Phase II) No
    E.7.3Therapeutic confirmatory (Phase III) Yes
    E.7.4Therapeutic use (Phase IV) No
    E.8 Design of the trial
    E.8.1Controlled Yes
    E.8.1.1Randomised Yes
    E.8.1.2Open Yes
    E.8.1.3Single blind No
    E.8.1.4Double blind No
    E.8.1.5Parallel group Yes
    E.8.1.6Cross over No
    E.8.1.7Other Yes
    E.8.1.7.1Other trial design description
    Central assessors are blinded to treatment allocation
    E.8.2 Comparator of controlled trial
    E.8.2.1Other medicinal product(s) No
    E.8.2.2Placebo No
    E.8.2.3Other Yes
    E.8.2.3.1Comparator description
    Do not start anticoagulation (standard clinical practice may include an antiplatelet drug)
    E.8.2.4Number of treatment arms in the trial2
    E.8.3 The trial involves single site in the Member State concerned No
    E.8.4 The trial involves multiple sites in the Member State concerned Yes
    E.8.4.1Number of sites anticipated in Member State concerned32
    E.8.5The trial involves multiple Member States No
    E.8.6 Trial involving sites outside the EEA
    E.8.6.1Trial being conducted both within and outside the EEA No
    E.8.6.2Trial being conducted completely outside of the EEA No
    E.8.7Trial has a data monitoring committee Yes
    E.8.8 Definition of the end of the trial and justification where it is not the last visit of the last subject undergoing the trial
    LVLS
    E.8.9 Initial estimate of the duration of the trial
    E.8.9.1In the Member State concerned years2
    E.8.9.1In the Member State concerned months0
    E.8.9.1In the Member State concerned days0
    E.8.9.2In all countries concerned by the trial years5
    E.8.9.2In all countries concerned by the trial months0
    E.8.9.2In all countries concerned by the trial days0
    F. Population of Trial Subjects
    F.1 Age Range
    F.1.1Trial has subjects under 18 No
    F.1.1Number of subjects for this age range: 0
    F.1.1.1In Utero No
    F.1.1.1.1Number of subjects for this age range: 0
    F.1.1.2Preterm newborn infants (up to gestational age < 37 weeks) No
    F.1.1.2.1Number of subjects for this age range: 0
    F.1.1.3Newborns (0-27 days) No
    F.1.1.3.1Number of subjects for this age range: 0
    F.1.1.4Infants and toddlers (28 days-23 months) No
    F.1.1.4.1Number of subjects for this age range: 0
    F.1.1.5Children (2-11years) No
    F.1.1.5.1Number of subjects for this age range: 0
    F.1.1.6Adolescents (12-17 years) No
    F.1.1.6.1Number of subjects for this age range: 0
    F.1.2Adults (18-64 years) Yes
    F.1.2.1Number of subjects for this age range: 280
    F.1.3Elderly (>=65 years) Yes
    F.1.3.1Number of subjects for this age range: 520
    F.2 Gender
    F.2.1Female Yes
    F.2.2Male Yes
    F.3 Group of trial subjects
    F.3.1Healthy volunteers No
    F.3.2Patients Yes
    F.3.3Specific vulnerable populations Yes
    F.3.3.1Women of childbearing potential not using contraception No
    F.3.3.2Women of child-bearing potential using contraception Yes
    F.3.3.3Pregnant women No
    F.3.3.4Nursing women No
    F.3.3.5Emergency situation No
    F.3.3.6Subjects incapable of giving consent personally Yes
    F.3.3.6.1Details of subjects incapable of giving consent
    Following ICH some patients may suffer temporary or permanent cognitive and physical difficulties, rendering them mentally incapacitated according to the statutory definitions; the methods of their recruitment will follow statutory recommendations.
    F.3.3.7Others No
    F.4 Planned number of subjects to be included
    F.4.1In the member state800
    F.4.2 For a multinational trial
    F.4.2.1In the EEA 800
    F.4.2.2In the whole clinical trial 800
    F.5 Plans for treatment or care after the subject has ended the participation in the trial (if it is different from the expected normal treatment of that condition)
    All patients randomised to start or not start an anticoagulant drug (standard clinical practice without OAC may include antiplatelet drug(s) or no antithrombotic drugs) will have the opportunity to continue with this treatment after the study ends if both the patient and their hospital doctor or General Practitioner feel this is beneficial. These drugs are available and used in standard clinical practice.
    G. Investigator Networks to be involved in the Trial
    G.4 Investigator Network to be involved in the Trial: 1
    N. Review by the Competent Authority or Ethics Committee in the country concerned
    N.Competent Authority Decision Authorised
    N.Date of Competent Authority Decision2017-07-12
    N.Ethics Committee Opinion of the trial applicationFavourable
    N.Ethics Committee Opinion: Reason(s) for unfavourable opinion
    N.Date of Ethics Committee Opinion2017-09-11
    P. End of Trial
    P.End of Trial StatusOngoing
    As of 1.2.2020, the UK is no longer an EU Member State. However, EU law still applies to the UK during the transition period
    EU Clinical Trials Register Service Desk: https://servicedesk.ema.europa.eu
    European Medicines Agency © 1995-2020 | Domenico Scarlattilaan 6, 1083 HS Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Legal notice
    EMA HMA